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Moscou - Gallerie Tretyakov ()

Le musée, possède l'une des plus importantes collections au monde : plus de 140 000 pièces de collection, dont 15 000 tableaux, la majorité œuvres d'artistes russes, 4 500 icônes et sculptures, et une centaine de milliers de dessins et divers documents graphiques. Les collections sont réparties entre le complexe Lavrouchinski (du xie siècle au début du xxe siècle) et la Nouvelle Galerie Tretiakov (xxe siècle).
La galerie d'État Tretiakov (en russe : Gossoudarstvennaïa Tretiakovskaïa galereïa) est un musée de Moscou fondé en 1856 par Pavel Tretiakov (1832-1898), industriel et grand amateur d'art.
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Moscou - Gallerie Tretyakov ()

La galerie d'État Tretiakov (en russe : Gossoudarstvennaïa Tretiakovskaïa galereïa) est un musée de Moscou fondé en 1856 par Pavel Tretiakov (1832-1898), industriel et grand amateur d'art.
Le musée, possède l'une des plus importantes collections au monde : plus de 140 000 pièces de collection, dont 15 000 tableaux, la majorité œuvres d'artistes russes, 4 500 icônes et sculptures, et une centaine de milliers de dessins et divers documents graphiques. Les collections sont réparties entre le complexe Lavrouchinski (du xie siècle au début du xxe siècle) et la Nouvelle Galerie Tretiakov (xxe siècle).
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Andrei Roublev - Archangel Michael. From the Deisus Chin (Row) ("Zvenigorodsky") (1410)

The so-called Zvenigorodsky Chin is one of the most beautiful icon ensembles of Old Russian painting. The chin (row) consists of three 'poyasnye' icons - the Saviour, the Archangel Michael and St Paul. The chin could form part of the iconostasis of either the princely Church of the Assumption or the neighboring Church of the Savvino-Storozhevsky Monastery whose ktitor (Gr.-founder) was the prince of Zvenigorod. The painting of the Zvenigorodsky Chin is noted for the special purity of colour, nobility of tonal transitions and light colour scheme. The golden backgrounds are illuminated radiantly and there is a tender blend of bright faces, pure nuances of ochre, blue, rose and green tones of the clothing. The icons come from Zvenigorod, near Moscow, and were once part of the Deisus and its 7 figures. The remaining three icons were discovered by the art restorer G.O. Chirikov in 1918 in a woodshed near the Church of the Assumption at Gorodok during exploration by an expedition of the Central State Restoration Workshops into the ancient princely temple of Yuri of Zvenigorod, the second son of Dmitry Donskoy.
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Andrei Roublev - Archangel Michael. From the Deisus Chin (Row) Zvenigorodsky (detail 2) ()

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Andrei Roublev - Christ sauveur (1428)

The so-called Zvenigorodsky Chin is one of the most beautiful icon ensembles of Old Russian painting. The chin (row) consists of three 'poyasnye' icons - the Saviour, the Archangel Michael and St Paul. The chin could form part of the iconostasis of either the princely Church of the Assumption or the neighboring Church of the Savvino-Storozhevsky Monastery whose ktitor (Gr.-founder) was the prince of Zvenigorod. The painting of the Zvenigorodsky Chin is noted for the special purity of colour, nobility of tonal transitions and light colour scheme. The golden backgrounds are illuminated radiantly and there is a tender blend of bright faces, pure nuances of ochre, blue, rose and green tones of the clothing. It should be mentioned that painting fragments have been preserved from the central icon of the Deisus where we can recognise an image of the Saviour which is full of inexhaustibly profound content. The Zvenigorod Saviour is humanised, inspires trust and hope and bears the principle of Good. The icons come from Zvenigorod, near Moscow, and were once part of the Deisus and its 7 figures. The remaining three icons were discovered by the art restorer G.O. Chirikov in 1918 in a woodshed near the Church of the Assumption at Gorodok during exploration by an expedition of the Central State Restoration Workshops into the ancient princely temple of Yuri of Zvenigorod, the second son of Dmitry Donskoy.
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andrei roublev - christ sauveur (detail) ()

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Andrei Roublev - la Sainte Trinite (1425)

The icon of the «Holy Trinity» is the most famous work of the brilliant Russian artist Andrei Rublev. According to the testimony of one of the 17th century sources, it was painted «in praise of Sergii Radonezhsky» at the order of his pupil and successor abbot Nikon. At the basis of the iconography is the Biblical tale (Book of Genesis, XVIII) of the appearance to saint Abraham of God in the form of three angels. Abraham and his wife Sarah entertained the three angels in the shade of an oak when Abraham understood that the angels were the embodiment of God in three faces. Avoiding details which were customary in the subject of the «Hospitality of Abraham», Andrei Rublev achieved extraordinary symbolic profundity in his work. In Rublev's icon all attention is concentrated on the three angels and their silent exchange. They are depicted as seated around an altar in the center of which there is a chalice of the Eucharist with the head of a sacrificial calf which symbolises the lamb of the New Testament, i.e., Christ. The left and centre angels bless the chalice. God the Father blesses God the Son for death on the cross in the name of love for people. God the Holy Spirit (the right angel) is present here to provide comfort, confirming the high logic of sacrificial, all-forgiving love. The content of the «Holy Trinity» is ambiguous. The monument is multi-faceted in its themes. Firstly, it embodies the idea of the triune Divinity. During the times of Sergii Radonezhsky and Andrei Rublev, the subject of the Trinity was understood as a symbol of spiritual unity, mutual love, the world and readiness to sacrifice oneself.
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Andrei Roublev - la Sainte Trinite (detail 1) ()

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Andrei Roublev - la Sainte Trinite (detail 2) ()

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Andrei Roublev - la Sainte Trinite (detail 3) ()

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Andrei Roublev - la Sainte Trinite (detail 4) ()

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Andrei Roublev - la Sainte Trinite (detail 6) ()

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Andrei Roublev - la Sainte Trinite (detail 7) ()

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anonyme - Blessed Be the Host of the King of Heaven (1550)

The icon was painted for the Assumption Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin, where it stood in a special case near the tsar's pew. Its title comes from the liturgical verse of the Octoechos which is devoted to the martyrs. The icon's subject evokes the Octoechos and other liturgical books extolling the martyrs who sacrificed their lives for true faith and were rewarded with Heavenly bliss. There is also a link to actual historical events, and most experts believe the panel commemorates the Russian conquest of Kazan in 1551. Headed by the Archangel Michael on a winged horse, warriors are marching in three columns from the burning city (apparently, Kazan) towards the Heavenly city (Heavenly Jerusalem) which is standing on a hill, crowned by a tent. The victors are met by Virgin Mary with the infant Christ and soaring angels with halos. On the eve of the Kazan campaign the Metropolitan Makary in his epistle to Sviyazhsk promised the forgiveness of sins to all participants of the expedition and a martyr's glory to all killed for the sake of true faith. In this respect the warriors in the middle row (depicted without nimbuses) can be seen as the conquerors of Kazan on their return to Moscow. The warriors with nimbi, then, are not only the martyrs revered by the Orthodox Church, but also the fallen participants of the campaign, whose sacrifice was considered equal to that of the ancient martyrs. According to the icon's author, they constitute a single Heavenly host. Judging by many historical records, Tsar Ivan the Terrible's Kazan campaign was seen by contemporaries not so much as a military or political undertaking, but rather as the struggle for the spreading of the Orthodox faith. Not surprisingly, this icon shows amid the host, St Constantine the Great in imperial robes, holding a cross. Perhaps the image of Constantine stands as a symbol for Ivan the Terrible himself, regarded as the heir to his cause. The theme of the triumph of the Christian faith is also stressed by the presence here of the first ever Russian saints, Vladimir, Boris and Gleb (they appear almost directly behind Constantine). The multi-figure narrative composition and the unusual shape of the icon have to do with the fact that this is not so much an icon, but a historical allegory praising the victorious Orthodox tsardom and its forces, using traditional iconographic means.
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anonyme - Blessed Be the Host of the King of Heaven (detail 1) ()

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anonyme - Blessed Be the Host of the King of Heaven (detail 2) ()

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anonyme - le jugement dernier (1550)

The iconography of the «Last Judgment» took shape in Byzantine art already by the 11th century on the basis of texts form the Book of Daniil (VII, 10), the Gospel According to Matthew (XIII, 30; XXV, 31-46), the Apocalypse, and also works by Efrem Sirin, Roman Sladkopevets, Pallady Mnikh and others. The composition is multi-row, complexо. Above in the centre is the semi-figure of God the Father. In circles there are the heavenly forces. To the left is Jerusalem (paradise). To the right is Golgotha, angels winding the scroll of heaven and driving away the gloom and mist from Christ seated on his throne and all-powerful. Below - Christ, the apostles and angels hold court. At His throne are Our Lady, John the Baptist, and Adam and Eve, who are interceding for people. Below the depiction of Christ is an altar with an open book in which are written human affairs. Below the altar is a hand holding scales. Peoples are moving towards the altar: the righteous and sinners. Below, to the right, there is the depiction of the fiery jaws of hell in which sit Satan with the soul of Judas. Emerging from hell is a snake with rings of affliction through which sinners must pass. An angel drives a sinner towards hell. Over hell is earth giving up corpses. All must come before the court - both the living and the dead. In the centre is a red circle with depiction of beasts embodying the empires which have perished: Babylon, Macedonia, Persia, Rome. To the left are the gates of paradise to which the righteous come and fly. Over the gates, in a circle, there is heaven and inside we see Our Lady, angels, and John the Baptist.
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anonyme - le jugement dernier 1550 (detail 1) ()

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anonyme - miracle icone notre dame bataille novgorod souzdal (1450)

The basis of the subject is a real historical event. In 1169 troops of Suzdal prince Mstislav Andreevich, son of Andrei Bogolyubsky, laid siege to Novgorod but could not take it thanks to a miracle by the Novgorod holy icon «The Sign of Our Lady». The event unfolds on the icon step by step. In the upper register we see Novgorodians praying before the icon «The Sign of Our Lady» in the Church of the Saviour on the commercial side. They then carry it into the Kremlin (Detinets) to the church of Saint Sofia. In the middle register emissaries conduct negotiations and at the same time the military actions commence. The Suzdal warriors shoot arrows at the icon of the «Sign of Our Lady». The icon stands on the tower and shields the Novgorodians, blinding the enemy. In the lower register we see the Novogorod troops leaving the fortress gates led by the saintly warriors Georgy, Boris and Gleb. To the right are the defeated Suzdal troops. The icon "Sign of Our Lady" (Battle between Novgorod and Suzdal) is a bright and characteristic example of Novgorod icon painting in its flourishing period. It embodies powerful spiritual energy. The composition is notable for its clarity, faithfulness of expression and precision of construction. The profoundly original colour range is dominated by vermillion.
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